Inflammation is recognized as an important component of many neurological diseases. Neuroinflammation can be initiated by various events, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, or autoimmunity. This makes neurological diseases difficult to diagnose and track, making treatment challenging.

Neurological diseases tend to be complex and often lack sufficient preclinical models, contributing to a drug development failure rate greater than 90%. There is an unmet need for blood-based biomarkers for diagnosis and for stratifying patients based on disease mechanisms or treatment response. Autoantibodies make excellent biomarkers in diseases with an inflammatory or autoimmune component.