Immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype and subtype profiling

An Ig isotype determines the role an antibody plays in the immune response. Having visibility into antibody isotypes and subtypes can provide valuable insight into patient immune status and higher-level disease mechanisms. This enables autoantibody biomarker signature discovery to better identify or predict disease and to better understand the response to vaccines and pathogens.

Sengenics can evaluate which antibody isotypes and subtypes in your patient samples are binding to potential antigens. This assay can investigate up to two isotypes or subtypes in the same assay.


Most abundant isotype with 4 subclasses, each with different roles in immune activation, pathogen detection and inflammation.


Found in blood and secretions and has 2 subclasses.


Produced during a primary immune response.


Plays a role in parasite detection and allergic reactions.


Expressed on the surface of immature B-cells.

Post-translational modification profiling

Post-translational modifications create neo-epitopes that can drive the generation of novel autoantibodies. This phenomenon occurs in some autoimmune diseases such as RA, SLE and diabetes.

Being able to modify the proteins on our arrays enables researchers to determine if patient samples contain autoantibodies that recognize these neoantigens and if they can be used as biomarkers for diagnosis or stratification. Sengenics can screen the autoantibodies in your patient samples with post-translationally modified proteins.

Post-translational modifications may include:

  • Citrullination
  • Oxidation
  • Glycation
  • Carbamylation

Don’t see what you need? Learn about our Custom Protein Assays.

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